Confidentiality, when applied to data security may either be associated with the data (plain text) being transferred, or to both the plain text and the identity of the sending and receiving parties; namely the source and destination IP addresses, which is known as traffic flow confidentiality. When IPSec (IP Security) is employed to provide confidentiality, ESP (Encapsulation Security Payload) is used to protect user data. To provide traffic flow confidentiality, ESP is also used. In this case however, IPSec tunnel mode is implemented.
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