LTE System Engineering

With LTE now the cornerstone of global 4G services, this course provides an end to end view of a typical LTE deployment. As such, the architecture required for LTE, including the air interface and all of the key interfaces and protocols, is examined. The course then takes a “day in the life” approach to the LTE handset, detailing all of the typical activity an LTE handset undertakes as it interacts with the network; procedures such as Initial Attach, Bearer Establishment, Mobility and Interworking are all considered. In conclusion, the course focuses on voice services, with emphasis on both CSFB and VoLTE.
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Section 1 - LTE Architecture
Section 2 - LTE E-UTRAN and E-UTRA
Section 3 - LTE Initial Procedures
Section 4 - LTE Security
Section 5 - Defining EPS Bearers
Section 6 - Utilizing EPS Bearers
Section 7 - LTE Mobility
Section 8 - Interworking with UMTS and GPRS
Section 9 - LTE and Voice Services

Topic areas covered include:

  • Key Trends:
    • Data Growth.
    • Migration from UMTS/HSPA.
    • Virtualization.
    • Enhancements to LTE:
      • LTE-A and LTE-A Pro Features.
  • Evolved Packet System Architecture.
  • E-UTRAN Architecture:
    • UE (User Equipment).
    • eNB (Evolved Node B).
    • HeNB (Home Evolved Node B).
    • E-UTRAN Interfaces and Protocols:
      • E-UTRAN Uu, X2.
      • RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC, X2AP.
  • EPC Architecture:
    • MME (Mobility Management Entity).
    • S-GW (Serving Gateway).
    • P-GW (Packet Data Network Gateway).
    • HSS (Home Subscriber Server).
    • DÉCOR (Dedicated Core Networks).
    • EPC Interfaces and Protocols:
      • S1-MME, S1-U, S3, S4, S5, S6a, S8, S10, S11, SGs, SGi.
      • S1AP, GTPv1-U, GTPv2-C, Diameter, NAS, SGsAP.
    • CUPS (Control and User Plane Separation of EPC Nodes):
      • Sxa, Sxb.
      • PCFP.
  • PCC Architecture:
    • PCC Reference Points and Protocol Stacks:
      • Gx, Rx, Gz, Gy, Sy, Sp.
  • IMS Architecture:
    • Key nodes:
      • Call Session Control Functions, HSS, Application Servers.
    • IMS Protocols:
      • SIP.

Topic areas covered include:

  • E-UTRAN Key Features:
    • Tracking Areas and TAI Lists.
    • C-RAN:
      • V1 Fronthaul.
    • Dual-Connectivity:
      • Bearer Configurations, 5G EN-DC.
  • E-UTRA Key Features:
    • OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access).
    • LTE Frame Structure:
      • Subframe, PRB, OFDM Symbol, Scheduling.
    • Frequency Division and Time Division Duplexing.
    • Modulation:
      • QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM, 1024QAM.
    • MIMO Technology.
    • Carrier Aggregation:
      • CA Band Configurations.
    • Shared Spectrum Options:
      • LTE-U, LAA, LWA.
  • LTE Frequency Bands.

Topic areas covered include:

  • LTE Mobility and Session Management:
    • ECM Connected and ECM Idle.
    • EPS Bearer Contexts.
  • LTE Identities.
  • Radio Resource Control:
    • Cell Selection, PLMN Selection and Cell Re-selection.
    • RRC establishment.
  • Initial Attach:
    • Default EPS Bearer Establishment.
    • Combined Attach.
  • Network Detach.
  • Activity: Signalling analysis of an Initial Attach and Default EPS Bearer Establishment procedure using Mpirical’s NetX.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Key Distribution:
    • KASME, KNASENC, KNASINT, KRRCENC, KRRCINT, KUPENC
  • EPS Authentication and Key Agreement:
    • F Algorithms.
    • RAND, AUTN, XRES and KASME.
  • IPSec and LTE:
    • IPSec Operation.
    • Certificate Based SA Establishment.

Topic areas covered include:

  • EPS Bearer Level Quality of Service:
    • QCI (QoS Class Identifier):
      • Resource Type, Priority, Packet Delay Budget, Packet Error Rate, Averaging Window, Maximum Data Burst Volume.
    • ARP (Allocation and Retention Priority):
      • Priority Level, Pre-emption Capability, Pre-emption Vulnerability.
    • Aggregate Maximum Bitrates (Non-GBR Bearers).
      • UE-AMBR, APN-AMBR.
    • Guaranteed Bitrates.
  • Traffic Flow Templates.
  • Establishing Dedicated EPS Bearers:
    • Network Initiated Dedicated Bearer Establishment.
    • Mobile Initiated Dedicated Bearer Establishment.
  • Modifying EPS Bearers:
    • Network Initiated Bearer Modification.
    • Mobile Initiated Bearer Resource Modification Procedure.
  • Releasing EPS Bearers:
    • Network Initiated Bearer Deactivation.
    • Mobile Initiated Bearer Deactivation.
    • Network Detach.
  • Activity: Signalling analysis of EPS bearer related procedures using Mpirical’s NetX.

Topic areas covered include:

  • EPS Bearers and E-RABs.
  • Service Request.
  • Paging in LTE.
  • S1 Release:
    • ECM States.
    • eNB Triggered S1 Release.
    • MME Triggered S1 Release.
    • Example S1 Release Procedure.
  • Activity: Signalling analysis of EPS bearer utilization related procedures using Mpirical’s NetX.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Mobility in LTE.
  • Idle Mode Mobility:
    • Cell Reselection.
  • Tracking Area Update:
    • Tracking Area Update Triggers.
    • Tracking Area Update with Relocation.
  • X2 Handover:
    • X2 Handover (Basic).
    • X2 Handover - S-GW Relocation.
  • S1 Handover:
    • Mobility with the EPC.
    • S1 Handover with S-GW and MME Relocation.
  • Roaming and LTE.
  • IP Packet Exchange:
    • IPX Architecture.
    • IPX Connectivity Options.
  • Activity: Signalling analysis of mobility related procedures using Mpirical’s NetX.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Interworking Concepts:
    • Attach Procedure.
    • Establishing the PDP Context and EPS Bearer.
    • Secondary PDP Contexts.
    • Network Initiated Secondary PDP Context Activation.
    • Session Modification.
    • PDP Context Deactivation.
    • E-UTRAN to UTRAN/GERAN RAU Procedure.
  • E-UTRAN to UTRAN Inter RAT Handover.
  • E-UTRAN to GERAN Inter RAT Handover.
  • UTRAN to E-UTRAN Inter RAT Handover.
  • GERAN to E-UTRAN Inter RAT Handover.

Topic areas covered include:

  • CSFB and VoLTE Comparison.
  • Circuit Switched Fallback:
    • CSFB Architectural Requirements.
    • CSFB Initial Procedures.
    • Options for Fallback.
  • CSFB Call Procedures:
    • MO Call (No Support for PS HO).
    • MO Call (Support for PS HO).
    • MT Call (No Support for PS HO).
    • Packet Switched Handover.
    • CSFB Call Delay Factors.
  • CSFB SMS Procedures:
    • CSFB MO SMS Procedure.
    • CSFB MT SMS Procedure.
  • Voice over LTE:
    • VoLTE End to End Architecture:
      • IMS and PCC.
    • VoLTE Initial Procedures.
  • VoLTE Call Procedures:
    • VoLTE Media – Codecs.
    • SIP Signalling Exchange.
    • Establishing Dedicated Bearers.
    • Tearing Down the Call.
  • VoLTE Interworking:
    • Interworking with Legacy Voice Networks
    • Handing Over to 2G/3G (SR-VCC).
    • Wi-Fi Calling.
  • Activity: Signalling analysis of CSFB and VoLTE procedures.

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