LTE Air Interface

With the introduction of LTE came the development of a new radio technology based on OFDMA / SC-FDMA. This course focuses on the LTE Air interface and provides a detailed analysis of the structure and features of the physical layer, as well as the layer 2 and 3 protocols, before explaining how these are used in the operation of the radio link from initial attach, through service delivery and finally mobility. In so doing, both LTE and LTE-Advanced are detailed. In addition, the operation of the X2 interface is also explored, as well as LTE Advanced Relays and Self Organizing Networks.
Course Introduction

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Section 1 - E-UTRA Introduction
Section 2 - E-UTRA Physical Layer
Section 3 - LTE RRC
Section 4 - NAS in LTE
Section 5 - PDCP in LTE
Section 6 - RLC in LTE
Section 7 - MAC in LTE
Section 8 - Operational Procedures
Section 9 - Air Interface Mobility
Section 10 - X2 Interface Operation
Section 11 - Relay Nodes
Section 12 - SON

Topic areas covered include:

  • E-UTRA Features:
    • Radio Access.
    • Duplexing Techniques:
      • FDD, TDD.
    • Modulation and Coding.
    • Transmission Bandwidth.
    • LTE FFT Sizes.
    • Subcarriers and Reference Signals.
  • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing:
    • OFDM Symbol Mapping.
    • Transmitted Signal.
    • Combating Interference in the Time Domain.
    • Cyclic Prefix.
  • OFDMA:
    • OFDM.
  • LTE Uplink - Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access:
    • The SC-FDMA Process.
  • The E-UTRAN Protocols:
    • NAS, RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC, S1AP and X2AP.
  • Evolved Node B:
    • Home Evolved Node B.
  • UE Capabilities.

Topic areas covered include:

  • LTE Generic Frame Structure:
    • Type 1 Radio Frames, Slots and Subframes.
    • Type 2 Radio Frames, Slots and Subframes.
  • Resource Grid and Resource Blocks:
    • Downlink PRB Parameters.
    • Uplink PRB Parameters.
  • Downlink Channel for Initial Access:
    • Downlink Synchronization Signals (FDD).
  • Downlink Reference Signals:
    • Cell Specific Reference Signals.
    • UE Specific Reference Signals.
  • The LTE Downlink Physical Channels:
    • Broadcast Information.
    • PCFICH:
      • CFI.
    • PDCCH:
      • REG, CCE.
    • PHICH.
    • PDSCH.
    • PDSCH Resource Allocation.
  • The LTE Uplink Physical Channels:
    • Multiplexing of Control Signalling and UL-SCH Data.
    • Uplink Data Transmission.
    • PUCCH (Physical Uplink Control Channel).
  • Uplink Reference Signals:
    • Demodulation Reference Signal.
    • Sounding Reference Signal.
    • PRACH.
  • Channel Coding.
  • FDD/TDD Timing:
    • FDD Operation.
    • TDD Operation.
    • Timing Advance.
  • HARQ Operation.
  • RNTI Identities.
  • Transmission Modes and MIMO:
    • MIMO and Transmission Options:
      • SU-MIMO, MU-MIMO.
    • Transmit Diversity.
    • MIMO.
    • Active Antenna Systems.
    • CoMP (Coordinated Multi Point).
    • CoMP Categories.
  • Carrier Aggregation.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Radio Resource Control:
    • RRC Messages.
    • RRC States.
  • System Information:
    • Acquisition of SI Messages.
    • RRC Connection.
  • E-UTRA Radio Bearers:
    • Signalling Radio Bearers
    • Dedicated Radio Bearers.
  • UE Capabilities.

Topic areas covered include:

  • NAS Control and User Plane:
    • Stratums.
    • NAS Messages.
  • EMM and ECM States:
    • EPS Mobility Management States.
    • EPS Connection Management States.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Packet Data Convergence Protocol:
    • PDCP Services.
  • PDCP Profiles:
    • Compression Standards:
      • ROHC.
  • PDCP Headers:
    • Control Plane PDCP Data PDU for SRBs.
    • User Plane PDCP Data PDU - 12bit SN.
    • User Plane PDCP Data PDU - 7bit SN.
    • PDCP Control PDU - Feedback.
    • PDCP Control PDU - Status Report.
    • RN User Plane PDCP Data PDU - Integrity Protection.
  • PDCP Status Exchange.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Radio Link Control:
    • Transparent Mode.
    • Unacknowledged Mode.
    • Acknowledged Mode.
    • RLC PDUs.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Medium Access Control:
    • Services expected from physical layer.
    • LTE Logical and Transport Channels.
    • RNTI Identities.
    • MAC Headers.
    • Random Access Process.
  • Buffer Status Reporting:
    • BSR Types.
  • Power Headroom Reporting:
    • PHR Types.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Initial Procedures:
    • Cell Search.
    • Cell Selection.
    • PLMN Selection.
    • Cell Selection.
    • Random Access.
    • Initial Attach.
  • LTE Capabilities.
  • Discontinuous Reception (Paging).
  • DRX in Active Mode:
    • Air Interface Scheduling (VoLTE).
    • Improving Coverage with TTI Bundling.
    • Voice Scheduling and SPS.
  • Security:
    • EPS Authentication and Key Agreement.
    • Key Distribution in the EPS.
    • Security Procedures.
    • Algorithms.
    • IPSec - Encapsulating Security Payload.
  • Power Control:
    • Downlink Power Control.
    • Uplink Power Control.
  • E-UTRA Measurements:
    • Measurement Configuration Options.
    • Basics of Measurement Objects.
    • Basics of Report Configuration.
    • LTE Events.
    • RRC Measurement Configuration Example.
    • Gap Configuration.
    • Timing.
  • ISR (Idle mode Signalling Reduction):
    • TIN Values.
    • ISR Activation.
  • Feedback Mechanisms:
    • Feedback Types.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Air Interface Mobility:
    • LTE Cell Planning.
  • LTE Measurements:
    • RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power).
    • RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator).
    • RSRQ (Reference Signal Received Quality).
  • Mobility Functional Architecture:
    • eNB.
    • MME.
    • Tracking Area.
  • LTE Idle Mode Mobility:
    • LTE Cell Reselection.
    • Priority Based Inter-RAT Cell Reselection.
    • E-UTRA System Information Messages.
    • Reselection to a Higher Priority Frequency or RAT cell.
    • Reselection to a Lower Priority Frequency or RAT cell.
    • Deleting E-UTRA Priorities.
  • Mobility in the LTE Active State.
  • Handover Process:
    • X2 Handover Request and Response
    • RRC Connection Reconfiguration.
    • Random Access.
    • SN Status Transfer and Status Report.
  • Data Forwarding:
    • RLC-AM DRBs.
    • RLC-UM DRBs.
    • SRB Handling.
  • S1 Based Handover (Relocation).

Topic areas covered include:

  • The X2 Interface.
  • X2 Basic Mobility Procedures:
    • X2 Handover Request.
    • X2 Handover Request Acknowledge.
    • X2 Handover Preparation Failure.
    • X2 SN Status Transfer.
    • X2 UE Context Release.
    • X2 Handover Cancel.
    • X2 Load Indication.
    • X2 Resource Status Reporting.
  • Heterogeneous Networks:
    • ICIC (Inter-Cell Interference Coordination).
  • eICIC (Enhanced ICIC):
    • CRE (Cell Range Extension).
    • ABS (Almost Blank Subframes).
    • feICIC.
  • Cross-Carrier Scheduling.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Evolution of Relay Nodes.
  • RN Terminology.
  • Uses of Relay Nodes:
    • Range Extension.
    • Capacity Boost.
    • Indoor Coverage.
    • Blind Spot Coverage.
  • Architecture:
    • Relay Node Start Up Procedure.
    • Relay Node Detach Procedure.
    • Example of RN Reconfiguration Message.

Topic areas covered include:

  • Self Organizing Networks.
  • SON Features.
  • Automatic Neighbour Relation:
    • ANR Procedure.
    • Possible ANR Architecture.

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